International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature (PhyloCode)

Division II. Rules

Chapter V. Selection of Accepted Clade Names

Article 12. Precedence


Nomenclatural uniqueness is achieved through precedence, the order of preference among established names. When homonyms or synonyms exist, precedence determines the selection of accepted names.

Note 12.1.1

Although the entity to which precedence applies in this code is referred to as a name, it is really the combination of a name and its definition. In different cases, one or the other of these components is more important. Specifically, in the case of synonyms, precedence refers primarily to the name, whereas in the case of homonyms, precedence refers primarily to the definition.


Precedence is based on the date of establishment, with earlier-established names having precedence over later ones, except that later-established names may be conserved over earlier ones under the conditions specified in Article 15, and panclade names (Art. 10.3) have precedence under the conditions specified in Article 14.4.

Note 12.2.1

In the case of homonymy involving names governed by two or more rank-based codes (e.g., the application of the same name to a group of animals and a group of plants), precedence is based on the date of establishment under this code. However, the Committee on Phylogenetic Nomenclature (see Art. 22) has the power to conserve a later-established homonym over an earlier-established homonym. This might be done if the later homonym is much more widely known than the earlier one.


For the determination of precedence, the date of establishment is considered to be the date of publication (see Art. 5), not the date of registration (but see Arts. 13.4 and 14.3).