International Code of Phylogenetic Nomenclature (PhyloCode)

Division II. Rules

Chapter III. Names

Article 7. General Requirements for Establishment


Establishment of a name can only occur through publication in Phylonyms: A Companion to the PhyloCode, or in another work after the publication date of Phylonyms, the starting date for this code.


In order to be established, a name of a clade must: (a) be published as provided for by Article 4; (b) be adopted by the author(s), not merely proposed for the sake of argument or on the condition that the group concerned will be accepted in the future; (c) apply to a clade that either appears on the reference phylogeny or is delimited by the cited apomorphy(-ies) (see Art. 9.13); (d) comply with the provisions of Articles 7 and 911; (e) be registered as provided for in Article 8, and the registration number be cited in the protologue; and (f) comply with the provisions of Article 17.

Note 7.2.1

The protologue is everything associated with a name when it was first established (this code), validly published (ICNAFP, ICNP), or made available (ICZN), for example, description, diagnosis, phylogenetic definition, registration number, designation of type, illustrations, references, synonymy, geographical data, specimen citations, and discussion.

Note 7.2.2

Material contained only in an electronic supplement to a printed or online journal is not published according to Article 4. Therefore, the following portions of the protologue must not be confined to an electronic supplement: (a) clade name to be established; (b) designation of clade name as new or converted (Art. 9.2); (c) phylogenetic definition (Arts. 9.3, 9.4); (d) reference phylogeny or statement about the distribution of apomorphies supporting the existence of the clade (Art. 9.13); (e) hypothesized composition of the clade (Art. 9.14); (f) for converted names, bibliographic citations (Art. 9.16) demonstrating prior application of the name to a taxon approximating the clade for which it is being established (Art. 9.15a) and authorship of the preexisting name (Art. 9.15b); (g) registration number (Art. 7.2); (h) when appropriate, the rationale for selection of the name (e.g., Recs. 10.1A, 10.1B).


When a publication contains a statement to the effect that names or nomenclatural acts in it are not to be considered for nomenclatural purposes, names that it may contain are considered as not established.